Nusa Penida, BALI
3rd kvartalsrapport - År 2009
July - aug-sep
Wildlife Protection, Habitat Restaurering & Fællesskabet Wellbeing
1. Udgivelsesdato & Bird Protection
FNPS bestræbelser på at fortsætte sin fugl frigivelse og beskyttelse program i Nusa Penida er en succes. Dette er mest tydeligt af det faktum, at mange fugle på øen, både endemiske og ikke-endemiske (frigivet), kan nemt være ‘plettet’ and monitored.
The programme’s key activity is monitoring the birds after release. The post-release monitoring of the Bali Starling (Leucopsar rothschildi), hvor FNPF og Begawan Foundation slutte hænder, er den største del af disse aktiviteter, men overvågningen af Mitchells Lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus mitchellii) og Toppet Parakeet (Bandar alexandri) are a part of the programme as well.
Apart from a programme directly involving the monitoring and protection of wildlife, andre aktiviteter, såsom rehabilitering jord, bevaring uddannelse og styrkelse af den lokale befolkning er vigtige dele af FNPF bevaringsmæssige indsats såvel.
Bali Stær (Leucopsar rothschildi)
Regular post-release monitoring and observation of the Bali Starling is done by our loyal voluntary staff in the field, with the support of the Begawan Foundation. The amount of birds in the field is based on average numbers of birds observed in a given area. Young birds in the nests are not included in this count.
I juli, a newly formed pair of Bali Starlings, called ‘P7′, at Banjar Nyuh, a few kilometres from the Bali Bird Sanctuary, produced two chicks. In the months of August and September, the FNPF has not been able to identify any chicks hatched in the wild. The total number of chicks born in the wild for the period July-September 2009, therefore, is two. Bali Starling synes at være forsvundet fra området omkring Puncak Temu og Puncak Mundi, sandsynligvis på grund af prædation fra slanger eller gekkoer. På området for Batumadeg, no reproduction of the Starling has been observed during the last three months. Dette bringer det samlede antal af Bali Starling kyllinger født i naturen og frit flyvende rundt i Nusa Penida ved 62 since the inception of this programme in June 2006.
Mitchell's Lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus mitchellii)
Efter udsætningen observationer af denne unikke Lorikeet viser, at fuglene har valgt en alternativ levested for de sjældent er set ved Banjar DIP, the original release location around the FNPF offices. Despite the fact that the released pair (of uncertain sex) has not shown signs of reproduction, the FNPF is happy to see that the pair has chosen to move away from its release habitat and is successful at surviving in the wild in Nusa Penida. This is a sure sign that this particular bird species, and other birds like it, is able to survive on the island and more birds will be released in the future. It goes without saying that it’s the FNPF’s ardent hope the Mitchells will produce offspring in the wild. The released pair will be closely observed to determine where exactly is has chosen its new habitat. Further news on this bird is forthcoming.
Mindre svovl-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea parvula)
The population recovery of the native cockatoo of Nusa Penida has seen some hick-ups. Den FNPF har ikke tilstrækkelige oplysninger til at planlægge en avl eller frigivelse til støtte for Den tilsigtede befolkning inddrivelse af kakadue. Various people and a number of government institutions in the realm of nature conservation have been approached in order to obtain information regarding either privately or otherwise owned birds, men indtil skrivende stund ingen positive tilbagemeldinger er modtaget. Den FNPF føler, at for at de vilde fugle på Nusa Penida at reproducere, en indledende avlsprogram kunne incepted hjælp kakaduer fra forskellige kendte kilder. It’s important to keep and make use of the genetic variety of the birds that are kept in captivity elsewhere in order to enhance the chances of survival of the entire population on the island. Moreover, the few cockatoos presently flying around on Nusa Penida are likely to become ‘teachers’ at the art of surviving in the wild to the future chicks born in in-situ conditions.
Red-breasted Parakeet (Bandar alexandri)
The released Red-breasted Parakeets have rarely been seen around the original place of release, Jeg. the Bali Bird Sanctuary at Ped, Nusa Penida. Den eneste fugl, der hver dag og igen er dukket op omkring kontorer fra juli-september 2009 er den fugl, der ikke har en kammerat på tidspunktet for dens udgivelse. Fuglen er observeret flyve rundt på egen hånd, but is difficult to spot as it’s a rather quite bird and its colours haven’t yet fully developed. In this sense, it’s a lucky bird, for it finds itself camouflaged by the lush, green vegetation and therefore lives an undisturbed life. With FNPF’s old friend still visiting the area around the sanctuary, det er sandsynligt, at resten af de frigivne Toppet Parakitter overleve godt andre steder på Nusa Penida.
2. Støtte til aktiviteter
Bevarelse uddannelse gives både i og uden for klasseværelset. The new students got a chance to learn from the older and more experienced nature lovers, and together they learnt about identifying plants, bird watching, genplantning, planting of new trees and other subjects in relation to nature conservation.
Fra 28 til 30 August, a Nature Lovers Gathering (Temu Cinta Alam Se-Bali XVI, TCA) was held in the school yard of the State Highschool 2 (SMA Negeri 2 Semara Klungkung) in the city of Klungkung, og på Lepang Beach omkring 5 kilometer fra skole. Youth Conservation Students from all over Bali participated in this gathering. This event is held every year and is organised by the Bali Nature Lovers Communication Forum. The objective was to discuss the action taken in relation to the protection of the environment not only in Bali, but more generally in Indonesia as well. Fifteen groups of nature lovers participated in this event, from highschools and both state and private Tertiary Educational Institutions from all over Bali.
Topics of discussion were, blandt andre, bevarelse af havskildpadder, the planting of trees along Lepang Beach and the organisation of the Bali Nature Lovers Communication Forum (FKPA). The two days conference was concluded with discussions on who is going to be next year’s representatives for TCA.
Youth Conservation Students Dedi Ni Luh Sarino and I Kadek Maedayanti from State Highschool SMA Negeri 1 from Nusa Penida participated in the gathering, together with Highschool teacher Wayan Oka and a FNPF volunteer (veterinary surgeon) Made Widana. The FNPF financed meals for the three students from Nusa Penida.
In commemoration of national Independence Day on 17 August last, the FNPF organised an environmental quiz contest. All Nusa Penida highschools in ten teams participated in the event. The winner of the event was State Highschool 2 (SMA Negeri 2). Nusa Penida sub-district head I Made Sudiarkajaya was very enthusiastic about the contest, and he is possibly willing to stage this event next year. The FNPF hopes that not only the quiz contest but all conservation education activities will be part of the overall curriculum at schools around the island, as at this moment the FNPF is only able to organise nature conservation activities at highschool level due to insufficient funding and limited human resources.
Nature conservation activities at Tanjung Puting National Park (Kalimantan) were inserted in the standard curriculum of two highschools in 2008. The FNPF is convinced that something similar will take place in Nusa Penida. If nature conservation education is ‘upgraded’ and inserted into the mandatory regular curriculum at schools around the island, Nusa Penida will become the sub-district with the highest quality nature conservation education in Bali, and perhaps in all of Indonesia. In the long run, this will enhance Nusa Penida’s chances of becoming a place where all its inhabitants live side by side safely, an island where the living environment and the natural environment are in balance and of equal importance.
As was the case in the previous period (April-June 2009) the FNPF has focussed on increasing the number of seedlings and the care of the seedlings that are grown in the nurseries. This included covering the soil around the seedlings with a layer of plastic (mulsa) in order to reduce the level of evaporation, and watering the plants which suffered from dehydration. These activities are taken on by as many as 15–20 local inhabitants every day.
In July-September 2009, alt 31,546 seedlings were prepared for planting, representing 19 plantearter: Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), Gamhar (Gmelina arborea), Silk træ (Albizia chinensis), Strawberry tree (Muntigea calabura), Monkey Pod (Albizia Saman), Kassod træ (Cassia siamea) osv.. Hovedparten af de planter, at FNPF producerer, er bestemt til agroforestry, which is becoming very popular with the local population of Nusa Penida. The FNPF strives to supply as many seedlings as possible in accordance with the wishes of the people as these plant species can be used for different purposes as they survive quite well in the arid conditions on the island: it serves as cow fodder, have high economic value, and in the long run make good habitat for birds and other wildlife. The FNPF expects that agroforestry will not only contribute towards a better livelihood for the inhabitants, but that it will also be beneficial to nature.
Reforestation at Julingan, Tanglad
Land rehabilitation is a ongoing project, despite the lack of rainfall in the past period. The arid conditions cause serious problems for the seedlings that were planted in Julingan. Fortunately, the termites plague, which was a big nuisance for the seedlings there, is now under control. As a result of this, kimplanter at FNPF holder i sin planteskole er sprællevende, ready to go to Julingan should plants out there not survive due to the draught.
Thirty hectares of land have been planted by the FNPF in co-operation with for instance the local government, the police, the army, the navy, students and citizens alike. This project was financed by three companies: Pertamina, Warisan and Karya Tangan Indah.
Pertamina has financed more than 10 hectares and has dedicated it to Bali’s fabled Winged Mascot, under the name ‘New Habitat for the Bali Starling’. On this plot of land, the FNPF has planted a large number of Singapore Cherry Trees (Muntingia calabura), of which the vast majority, 3,128 young plants, managed to survive the arid conditions. Apart from the Singapore Cherry Trees, the following trees keep up their chin in rather daunting circumstances: Adenanthera microsperma, Weeping Fig (Ficus benjamina), Big Leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macropylla), Monkey Pod (Albizia Saman), Kassod træ (Cassia siamea) og andre.
On a plot of land of ten hectares reforested by Karya Tangan Indah, 3,719 plants and trees survive, amongst which 1,282 bamboo species like the Common Bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris), Rough Giant Bamboo (Dendrocallamus Asper), Gigantochloa apus and 2,437 forest trees and plants.
On a plot of land of ten hectares, three hectares were financially supported by Warisan and another part by Maya Ubud Hotel, the FNPF and a number of smaller contributors. At the moment of writing there are still approximately 2,547 planter, of which a large part forest trees.
On an area of 30 hectares which was reforested at the end of September, 9,394 trees have done well and thrive (78.28%). Amongst these are forest plants like Jambul (Zyzigium cumini), Tropical Almond (Terminalia catapa), Caqui (Manilkara kauki), Crocodile Tree (Zanthoxylum rhetsa), Kontakt (Azadirachta indica) og 1,282 types of bamboo. This means that during the upcoming planting season (wet monsoon), we have to replace dead plants to make sure that survival rate of plants in year II will be at least 80%.
Empowerment of the local population & Community development
Den FNPF mener, at den lokale befolkning i Nusa Penida har gjort et fremragende stykke arbejde i at kigge efter deres miljø, for at FNPF at fortsætte Bird Udgivelse og beskyttelsesprogram. The Empowerment & Community Development Programme is in full swing.
As far as bamboo planting is concerned, during the months of July-September 2009, FNPF’s activities were focussed on increasing the numbers of (unge) bamboo plants for the local population. It’s expected these bamboo plants will increase once they are planted on Nusa Penida. The amount of young bamboo plants by the end of September 2009 was 27,561, amongst which Rough Giant Bamboo (Dendrocallamus Asper), Tropical Black Bamboo (Gigantochloa atroviolacea), Gigantochloa apus, Common Bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris), Gigantochloa kurzii/apus spp., Bambusa vulgaris spp, og ‘Fishing Rod’ Bamboo. These activities are entirely sponsored by Karya Tangan Indah. The FNPF has been able to plant 14,781 bamboo plants on the island. Of this total amount, 12,213 have survived the arid conditions, which comes down to a survival rate of 82,6%. There are nine pilot projects and one water reservoir – in Nusa Penida called ‘cubang’ – at each hectare of bamboo plantation, and at each selected hectare a minimum of 400 bamboo seedlings were planted.
Frø til Bali
The area around Puncak Mundi of over ten hectares has seen ‘the rigour’ of two dry seasons. Nonetheless, the survival rate of recently planted seedlings and trees is more than 80%. This has resulted in a wide variety of vegetation, depending on the plant species and soil fertility. Om ‘kritiske ', Jeg. rather dry and not very fertile, soil, the plants on an average have grown to abut 50 cm, whereas the plants in more favourable conditions have reached heights of around three metres. If plagues, diseases and forest fires don’t occur, the FNPF expects these plants will do fine given the fact that they have already survived two dry seasons. Moreover, with the upcoming wet monsoon 2009-2010 there is an even better chance of survival for these plants at this location.
Bortset fra denne, there are more hopeful results. At Adegan (near the village of Ped, on the north coast), an area of more than three hectares has successfully survived one dry season and the survival rate of newly planted vegetation brings a smile to our faces. Of the 1,200 trees at the pilot project area, 1,098 have survived, which makes an excellent survival rate of 91,5%. The Seeds for Bali Programme at Adegan was financed by Pt Bank Danamon and American Express card holder. The fruitful co-operation of Bank Danamon, American Express card holder, the FNPF and the local population shows that agroforestry is indeed an attainable goal on ‘critical land’ in Nusa Penida, on the condition that – especially during the dry monsoon – every tree is taken good care of after it’s planted. The FNPF hopes that this pilot project will inspire the local population to plant trees on so-called ‘sleeping plots of land’, Jeg. agricultural land fallen into disuse.