NUSA PENIDA, BALI
3Laporan Triwulan III - Tahun 2009
July - Agustus-September
Perlindungan Satwa Liar, Restorasi Habitat & Kesejahteraan Masyarakat
1. Pelepasan & Bird Protection
FNPS’s endeavours to continue its bird release and protection programme in Nusa Penida are successful. This is most evident from the fact that many birds on the island, both endemic and non-endemic (terlepas), can easily be ‘spotted’ and monitored.
The programme’s key activity is monitoring the birds after release. The post-release monitoring of the Bali Starling (Leucopsar rothschildi), dimana FNPF dan Yayasan Begawan bergandengan tangan, adalah bagian terbesar dari kegiatan ini, but the monitoring of the Mitchell’s Lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus mitchellii) and the Red-breasted Parakeet (Psittacula Alexandri) are a part of the programme as well.
Apart from a programme directly involving the monitoring and protection of wildlife, other activities such as land rehabilitation, conservation education and empowerment of the local population are important parts of FNPF’s conservation efforts as well.
Jalak Bali (Leucopsar rothschildi)
Regular post-release monitoring and observation of the Bali Starling is done by our loyal voluntary staff in the field, with the support of the Begawan Foundation. The amount of birds in the field is based on average numbers of birds observed in a given area. Young birds in the nests are not included in this count.
Pada bulan Juli, a newly formed pair of Bali Starlings, called ‘P7′, at Banjar Nyuh, a few kilometres from the Bali Bird Sanctuary, produced two chicks. In the months of August and September, the FNPF has not been able to identify any chicks hatched in the wild. The total number of chicks born in the wild for the period July-September 2009, therefore, is two. The Bali Starling seems to have disappeared from the area around Puncak Temu and Puncak Mundi, probably due to predation by snakes or geckos. In the area of Batumadeg, no reproduction of the Starling has been observed during the last three months. This brings the total number of Bali Starling chicks born in the wild and freely flying around in Nusa Penida at 62 sejak dimulainya program ini pada bulan Juni 2006.
Mitchell Lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus mitchellii)
Post-Release observations of this unique Lorikeet show that the birds have chosen an alternative habitat for they have rarely been observed at Banjar Bodong, the original release location around the FNPF offices. Despite the fact that the released pair (of uncertain sex) has not shown signs of reproduction, the FNPF senang melihat bahwa pasangan telah memilih untuk menjauh dari habitat rilis dan berhasil bertahan hidup di alam liar di Nusa Penida. This is a sure sign that this particular bird species, and other birds like it, is able to survive on the island and more birds will be released in the future. Tak perlu dikatakan bahwa itu harapan bersemangat yang FNPF itu Mitchells akan menghasilkan keturunan di alam liar. Pasangan ini dirilis akan erat diamati untuk menentukan di mana tepatnya yaitu telah memilih habitat baru. Berita lebih lanjut mengenai burung ini akan datang.
Lesser Sulphur-crested Kakatua (Cacatua sulphurea parvula)
Pemulihan populasi kakatua asli Nusa Penida telah melihat beberapa orang udik-up. The FNPF doesn’t have sufficient information to plan for a breeding or release programme to support the intended population recovery of the cockatoo. Various people and a number of government institutions in the realm of nature conservation have been approached in order to obtain information regarding either privately or otherwise owned birds, tetapi sampai saat menulis tidak ada umpan balik positif telah diterima. The FNPF feels that in order for the wild birds on Nusa Penida to reproduce, an initial breeding programme could be incepted using cockatoos from various known sources. It’s important to keep and make use of the genetic variety of the birds that are kept in captivity elsewhere in order to enhance the chances of survival of the entire population on the island. Selain itu, beberapa Kakatua saat terbang di sekitar di Nusa Penida cenderung menjadi ‘guru’ at the art of surviving in the wild to the future chicks born in in-situ conditions.
Red-breasted Parakeet (Psittacula Alexandri)
The released Red-breasted Parakeets have rarely been seen around the original place of release, i. the Bali Bird Sanctuary at Ped, Nusa Penida. The only bird that every now and again has shown up around the offices from July-September 2009 adalah burung yang tidak memiliki pasangan pada saat peluncurannya. Burung itu diamati terbang di sekitar sendiri, tetapi sulit untuk menemukan seperti itu adalah burung yang agak cukup dan warna yang belum sepenuhnya dikembangkan. Dalam hal ini, itu adalah burung beruntung, for it finds itself camouflaged by the lush, green vegetation and therefore lives an undisturbed life. Dengan teman lama FNPF masih mengunjungi daerah sekitar tempat kudus, it’s probable that the rest of the released Red-breasted Parakeets survive well elsewhere on Nusa Penida.
2. Pendukung kegiatan
Conservation education is given both inside and outside of the classroom. The new students got a chance to learn from the older and more experienced nature lovers, and together they learnt about identifying plants, bird watching, pohon untuk reboisasi, penanaman pohon baru dan mata pelajaran lain dalam kaitannya dengan konservasi alam.
Dari 28 untuk 30 Agustus, a Pecinta Alam Temu (Temu Cinta Alam Se-Bali XVI, TCA) was held in the school yard of the State Highschool 2 (SMA Negeri 2 Semara Klungkung) in the city of Klungkung, dan pada Lepang Pantai sekitar 5 kilometer dari sekolah. Youth Conservation Students from all over Bali participated in this gathering. This event is held every year and is organised by the Bali Nature Lovers Communication Forum. Tujuannya adalah untuk membahas tindakan yang diambil dalam kaitannya dengan perlindungan lingkungan tidak hanya di Bali, tetapi lebih umum di Indonesia juga. Lima belas kelompok pecinta alam berpartisipasi dalam acara ini, dari highschools dan kedua negara dan Lembaga Pendidikan Tersier swasta dari seluruh Bali.
Topik diskusi yang, amongst others, the conservation of marine turtles, the planting of trees along Lepang Beach and the organisation of the Bali Nature Lovers Communication Forum (FKPA). The two days conference was concluded with discussions on who is going to be next year’s representatives for TCA.
Youth Conservation Students Dedi Ni Luh Sarino and I Kadek Maedayanti from State Highschool SMA Negeri 1 dari Nusa Penida berpartisipasi dalam pertemuan tersebut, bersama-sama dengan guru Highschool Wayan Oka dan relawan FNPF (dokter hewan) Made Widana. The FNPF financed meals for the three students from Nusa Penida.
In commemoration of national Independence Day on 17 August last, the FNPF organised an environmental quiz contest. All Nusa Penida highschools in ten teams participated in the event. Pemenang acara tersebut adalah Negara Highschool 2 (SMA Negeri 2). Nusa Penida Camat I Made Sudiarkajaya sangat antusias tentang kontes, and he is possibly willing to stage this event next year. The FNPF berharap bahwa tidak hanya kontes kuis tetapi semua kegiatan pendidikan konservasi akan menjadi bagian dari kurikulum di sekolah-sekolah secara keseluruhan sekitar pulau, as at this moment the FNPF is only able to organise nature conservation activities at highschool level due to insufficient funding and limited human resources.
Nature conservation activities at Tanjung Puting National Park (Kalimantan) were inserted in the standard curriculum of two highschools in 2008. The FNPF is convinced that something similar will take place in Nusa Penida. If nature conservation education is ‘upgraded’ dan dimasukkan ke dalam kurikulum reguler wajib di sekolah-sekolah di sekitar pulau, Nusa Penida will become the sub-district with the highest quality nature conservation education in Bali, and perhaps in all of Indonesia. In the long run, ini akan meningkatkan peluang Nusa Penida yang menjadi tempat di mana semua penghuninya hidup berdampingan dengan aman, sebuah pulau di mana lingkungan hidup dan lingkungan alam berada dalam keseimbangan dan sama pentingnya.
Seperti yang terjadi pada periode sebelumnya (April-Juni 2009) the FNPF telah difokuskan pada peningkatan jumlah bibit dan perawatan bibit yang ditanam di pembibitan. This included covering the soil around the seedlings with a layer of plastic (mulsa) in order to reduce the level of evaporation, and watering the plants which suffered from dehydration. Kegiatan ini diambil oleh sebanyak 15-20 penduduk lokal setiap hari.
Pada bulan Juli-September 2009, total 31,546 seedlings were prepared for planting, representing 19 jenis tumbuhan: Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), Gamhar (Gmelina arborea), Sutra pohon (Albizia chinensis), Strawberry pohon (Muntigea calabura), Monkey Pod (Albizia saman), Kassod pohon (Cassia siamea) dll. The bulk of the seedlings that the FNPF produces is destined for agroforestry, which is becoming very popular with the local population of Nusa Penida. The FNPF berusaha untuk memasok bibit sebanyak mungkin sesuai dengan keinginan rakyat sebagai spesies tanaman ini dapat digunakan untuk tujuan yang berbeda karena mereka bertahan hidup cukup baik dalam kondisi kering di pulau: it serves as cow fodder, have high economic value, and in the long run make good habitat for birds and other wildlife. The FNPF mengharapkan bahwa agroforestry tidak hanya akan berkontribusi terhadap penghidupan yang lebih baik bagi penduduk, but that it will also be beneficial to nature.
Reforestation at Julingan, Tanglad
Land rehabilitation is a ongoing project, despite the lack of rainfall in the past period. The arid conditions cause serious problems for the seedlings that were planted in Julingan. Fortunately, the termites plague, yang merupakan gangguan besar bagi bibit ada, sekarang di bawah kendali. Sebagai hasil dari ini, the seedlings that the FNPF keeps in its nursery are alive and kicking, ready to go to Julingan should plants out there not survive due to the draught.
Tiga puluh hektar lahan telah ditanami oleh FNPF dalam kerjasama dengan misalnya pemerintah daerah, polisi, tentara, the navy, students and citizens alike. This project was financed by three companies: Pertamina, Warisan and Karya Tangan Indah.
Pertamina has financed more than 10 hectares and has dedicated it to Bali’s fabled Winged Mascot, under the name ‘Habitat baru untuk Bali Starling '. Pada sebidang tanah, the FNPF telah menanam sejumlah besar Singapura Cherry Trees (Muntingia calabura), yang sebagian besar, 3,128 tanaman muda, berhasil bertahan hidup dengan kondisi kering. Terlepas dari Singapore Cherry Trees, pohon-pohon berikut menjaga dagu mereka dalam keadaan agak menakutkan: Microsperma Adenanthera, Menangis Fig (Ficus benjamina), Big Leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macropylla), Monkey Pod (Albizia saman), Kassod pohon (Cassia siamea) dan lain-lain.
On a plot of land of ten hectares reforested by Karya Tangan Indah, 3,719 plants and trees survive, amongst which 1,282 spesies bambu seperti Common Bambu (Bambusa vulgaris), Rough Raksasa Bambu (Dendrocalamus asper), Gigantochloa apus 2,437 pohon hutan dan tanaman.
On a plot of land of ten hectares, three hectares were financially supported by Warisan and another part by Maya Ubud Hotel, the FNPF and a number of smaller contributors. At the moment of writing there are still approximately 2,547 tanaman, of which a large part forest trees.
On an area of 30 hectares which was reforested at the end of September, 9,394 trees have done well and thrive (78.28%). Amongst these are forest plants like Jambul (Zyzigium cumini), Tropical Almond (Terminalia catapa), Caqui (Manilkara kauki), Crocodile Tree (Zanthoxylum rhetsa), Mengambil (Azadirachta indica) dan 1,282 types of bamboo. This means that during the upcoming planting season (wet monsoon), we have to replace dead plants to make sure that survival rate of plants in year II will be at least 80%.
Empowerment of the local population & Community development
The FNPF feels that the local population of Nusa Penida has done an excellent job in looking after their environment in order for the FNPF to continue the Bird Release and Protection Programme. The Empowerment & Community Development Programme is in full swing.
As far as bamboo planting is concerned, during the months of July-September 2009, FNPF’s activities were focussed on increasing the numbers of (muda) bamboo plants for the local population. It’s expected these bamboo plants will increase once they are planted on Nusa Penida. The amount of young bamboo plants by the end of September 2009 was 27,561, amongst which Rough Giant Bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper), Tropical Black Bamboo (Gigantochloa atroviolacea), Gigantochloa apus, Bambu umum (Bambusa vulgaris), Gigantochloa kurzii / apus spp., Bambusa vulgaris spp, dan ‘Memancing Rod’ Bambu. These activities are entirely sponsored by Karya Tangan Indah. The FNPF has been able to plant 14,781 bamboo plants on the island. Of this total amount, 12,213 have survived the arid conditions, which comes down to a survival rate of 82,6%. There are nine pilot projects and one water reservoir – in Nusa Penida called ‘cubang’ – at each hectare of bamboo plantation, and at each selected hectare a minimum of 400 bamboo seedlings were planted.
Seeds for Bali
The area around Puncak Mundi of over ten hectares has seen ‘the rigour’ of two dry seasons. Nonetheless, the survival rate of recently planted seedlings and trees is more than 80%. This has resulted in a wide variety of vegetation, depending on the plant species and soil fertility. Pada ‘kritis ', i. rather dry and not very fertile, soil, the plants on an average have grown to abut 50 cm, whereas the plants in more favourable conditions have reached heights of around three metres. If plagues, diseases and forest fires don’t occur, the FNPF expects these plants will do fine given the fact that they have already survived two dry seasons. Selain itu, with the upcoming wet monsoon 2009-2010 there is an even better chance of survival for these plants at this location.
Terlepas dari ini, there are more hopeful results. At Adegan (dekat desa Ped, on the north coast), an area of more than three hectares has successfully survived one dry season and the survival rate of newly planted vegetation brings a smile to our faces. Of the 1,200 trees at the pilot project area, 1,098 have survived, which makes an excellent survival rate of 91,5%. The Seeds for Bali Programme at Adegan was financed by Pt Bank Danamon and American Express card holder. The fruitful co-operation of Bank Danamon, American Express card holder, the FNPF and the local population shows that agroforestry is indeed an attainable goal on ‘critical land’ in Nusa Penida, on the condition that – especially during the dry monsoon – every tree is taken good care of after it’s planted. The FNPF hopes that this pilot project will inspire the local population to plant trees on so-called ‘sleeping plots of land’, i. agricultural land fallen into disuse.