NUSA PENIDA, BALI
1st Quarter Report – Year 2010
January – February – March
Wildlife Protection, Habitat Restoration & Community Wellbeing
In 2010, Friends of National Parks Foundation has hit the ground running continuing with our ongoing and consistent efforts of the last few years in wildlife conservation. At the Bali Bird Sanctuary on Nusa Penida these activities focused on bird rehabilitation and monitoring of previously released birds, including the Bali Starling (Leucopsar rothschildi), Mitchell’s Lorikeet (Tricoglosus haematodus mitchellii), the Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoo ( Cacatua sulphurea parvula) and the Red Lories (Psittacula alexandri). Observation results showed there were fluctuation in population especially the Bali Starling.
Apart from activities directly related to animals, other supporting activities such as land rehabilitation, conservation education and community development continued with the objective to maintain the strong working relationship and support given by the local population for FNPF’s activities.
II. Report on Bird Release
II.1 Observation on the Bali Starling ( Leucopsar rothschildi).
The Bali Starling observation was largely in cooperation between FNPF and Begawan Foundation. Our information and observations about this highly endangered species relies on the efforts of our staff observation but is also based on information contributed by local people.
During the months since the start of the year we are pleased to note there were some reproduction activities. From 6 proven pairs that were monitored, there are 8 additional baby Bali starlings, 5 of them are second generation offspring hatched in the wild which is a great achievement and signal of the success of the breeding program. The numbers are based on the birds that have been observed flying with their parents. One of the pair is due to have their second clutch over this period but we donot know yet how many offspring they have had. The total population that we have observed on Penida Island vary from 77 – 82. We have also received information from visitors and the local community that there were some birds spotted beyond our regular observation areas where the bird were originally releaased ( Ped, Batumadeg, Puncak Mundi and Puncak Temu). Sightings were also recorded on Lembongan Island and Sompang area which is quite far from the release site. This is significant due to the small range of the Bali Starling pairs on Nusa Penida who normally nest and feed within a range of 300metres When in a group Bali Starling can range as far as 2 km, as has been recorded in West Bali National Park, but they dont usually travel this distance everyday. These new sightings may suggest a larger range for the birds on Nusa Penida – and we will continue our observations in the area.
II.2 Observation on the Mitchell’s Lorikeet (Tricoglosus haematodus mitchellii )
The Mitchell’s Lorikeet is more and more seldomly observed around the office area. The most frequent appearances were in early 2010 with only one bird found regularly around FNPF’s office. This bird has seldom been seen again around the office. We are reahabilitating 3 birds for future release to add the numbers of wild birds. They are due for release as soon as the dry season comes in – normally in May but possibly later as we have had late rains this year.
II.3 Observation of the Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoo (Cacatúa sulphurea parvula)
During this period we obseved that one of the Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoos that were released by the Governor of Bali on November 2009 at Puncak temu Temple, has been observed closer and closer to one female at Sedihing village. We hope something good will come of this potential pair.
The female that we took back to the office for rehabilitation is already able to fly much better than before and is now demonstrating its ability to get food from the wild such as Jamaican Cherry (Muntingea carabula) fruit, Morringga ulcifera seed, Red Bead Tree (Adenanthera microsperma ) seed and chilli. This particular female also eats young leaves and buds.
We are in progress to set up a breeding and release program in Nusa Penida for the Lesser Sulphur Crested Cockatoo. We are happy to annoice that we have received some support from one of the participants at 2010 International Parrot Festival in Houston Texas USA, who is willing to find some birds in captivity which could be released in Nusa Penida. We have followed up this support by applying for all the paper work that we need to bring in the bird to Nusa Penida, including contacting the Forestry Department, Livestock Department and we have also applied to present the program to the Governor of Bali. We were scheduled to present the whole Bali Bird Sanctuary program by April 6th 2010.
II.4 Observations of Java Sparrow(Padda oryzivora).
Up until the end of March 2010, our staff have not reported any sightings of the Java Sparrow that were released on National Planting Day, (November 29th) 2009. Birds were observed more than a week afrter the inital release date. We assume the numbers of birds that we released were not big enough to be seen or to protect themselves from predators. To overcome this issue of numbers we are setting up a breeding program for this bird for future releases.
II.5 Observation on Red Lory (Eos bornea)
Both of the Red Lory continue to frequently appear around Ped village
II.6 Moustache Parakeet (Psitacula alexandri)
We only found one of the Moustache Parakeet, an unpaired bird, around our office area. The two other pairs were not observed during this period.
III. Supporting Activities
III.1 Conservation Education
During the first three months of 2010, conservation education activities were minimal due to the schools’ focus on examinations and graduations for the 2009-2010 academic year.
III.2 Land Rehabilitation
FNPF’s planting activities were focused more on seedling propagation and maintenance of seedlings previously planted. Until late March, there were 27.470 seedlings ready to be planted, consisting of 11 species. These include: White teak (Gmelina arborea), Jamaican cherry (Muntingea calabura), Silk tree (Albizia chinensis), Monkey pod (Albizia saman), Kassof tree (Cassia siamea), Palm, Neem (Azadirachta indica), Tropical almond (Terminalia catapa), and Bead tree (Adenanthera microsperma)
Apart from these, seedlings were also acclimatized at our nursery, including: Neem, (Azadirachta indica), Prickly ash / Crocodile wood (Zanthoxylum rhetsa) etc with totalling 4.896 in number. From these 400 were dontated to the local community due to the onset of rain. As with previous years, most of the seedlings we are producing are items suitable for agroforestry. The most popular species with the local people are those that can be consumed as animal food, which produce a good wood and are also adapted to the dry conditions on Nusa Penida. The locals value the economic benefit of these species. For our conservation purposes, the species also must give benefits to the Nusa Penida environment to increase the carrying capacity of the island for wildlife, especially birds.
III.2.1 Planting at Tanglad
Planting activities at Tanglad in 2010 have been focused on replanting around sites where dead plants were found after the first year since planting. We replanted bamboos and a range of forest plants. There were about 500 bamboos planted consisting of Common bamboo, Giant bamboo, Yellow stemmed bamboo etc. The rest of the species that we replanted during this period were largely Kassof tree (Cassia siamea) and Monkey pod (Albizia saman). These seedlings were distributed and planted on the sites sponsored by :
- PT Karya Tangan Indah / John Hardy International: 654 seedlings (10 Ha fully funded)
- PT Pertamina: 498 seedlings (10 Ha fully funded)
- PT Warisan: 740 seedlings ( 6,5 Ha funded amongst 10 Ha we have planted).
We replanted much more of the PT Warisan site because this site was largely burnt by fire in October 2009.
On 12 hectares of the second stage planting site that was started on December 13, 2009, of the 4,800 seedlings that we planted, 3,987 plants, or 83%, were found alive in late March. Most of these plants are Silk trees (Albizia chinensis), Kassof trees (Cassia siamea) and Monkey Pod trees (Albizia saman). Gumna Safari Park and YK Ltd sponsored 1 Ha of the planting.
Besides the above mentioned main donors for our reforestation program, we also got some support from Maya Hotel Ubud. Some tourists visiting Nusa Penida were also interested in our work and gave donations to maintain the trees that the are planting. We hope we will able to find sponsors for 14,5 Ha of land that we have planted to help maintain the seedlinds and give us more flexibility to do further work in this area.
III.3 Community Development
Early 2010, FNPF continued the Community Development program with the objective to maintain support given by Nusa Penida people for FNPF’s programs .
III.3.1 Bamboo plaanting
In the January –March period, with regard to bamboo, activities were focused on seedling propagation and monitoring beause this program is being reviewed by our donor. Our continuous effort in propagating bamboo seedlings resulted in 26,617 seedlings in late March, consisting of Giant bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper), Buddha Belly bamboo, Common bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris), and Yellow-stemmed bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad).
Up until late March, 7,000 bamboos were distributed amongst 38 local people. These bamboos consisted of Giant bamboo, Spotted bamboo, Common bamboo, and Black bamboo. The survival rate is between 69,81 % and 100%. We encouraging the community to plant bamboo because in March we have had more rainfall than the previous month.
III.3.2 Seeds For Bali Program
This program has shown very good results and is a real example for anyone who doubts the potential for successful tree planting and agroforestrty work on dry sites such as Nusa Penida. The first planting site at Puncak Temu area with total size of approximately 7 hectares has quite wide range in results from one site due to land to the other in terms of the growth due to land quality. Some of the seedlings that were planted on very degraded land did not grow any higher than 1 m. At the other side many of the seedlings at this area grew more than 4 m especially those growing on the slope of the hills. The survival rate at this area remains at 76%.
At the second planting site, Adegan village, the results are even better than at Puncak Temu. Over most of the total 3 Hectares of land, the growth of the seedlings more than 3 m.. The survival rate at the area is 93 %.
We hope having an agroforestry project in these two areas will encourage more farmers to plant trees. Those two sites have shown a real example that if we look after the seedling that we plant the trees have far better survival rate and growth. This program is fully funded by Pt. Bank Danamon Indonesia Terbuka (Danamon) and American Express Card members. We hope we will have more support from our donors – or from anyone interested to support our program.
III.3.3 Children’s Traditional Dance Class
The children’s traditional dance classes continued to be held on the grounds of FNPF’s office at Ped and at Batumadeg. Classes are held twice a week. At these two places, the number of students participating is between 40 to 50 on each class day.
III.3.4 Composting and Fermented Cow Food Course
During this period, we developed and presented an introductory course for producing compost and cow food from organic material, including waste material. Training was given by Supriyo Guntoro from the Bali Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian (Agriculture Technology Study Unit of Bali). The training was held at FNPF’s office area at Ped on the 3rd February 2010. Approximately 50 participants came to this course which was not only attended by farners but also by straff from the office of the Department of Cleaning and Parks – who take care of waste management on the island. The head of Nusa Penida sub district also attendance. We hope by developing this course we can provide some solutions to address the difficulty for local farmers in finding food for cows and livestock during the dry season and also to give knowledge to the farmers on how to improve their soil quality by demonstrating simple production techniques for making compost. Our long term aim for this program is to minimize the incident of accidental fires that have repeatedly resulted from slash and burn farming practices, and also to reduce number of farmers burning grasslands at the end of rainy season to try to get good quality grass for their livestock during the rainy season. The accidental fires from these acticivities have burnt 20 hectares of our 1st year planting site and also 10 hectares of the planting site on government land.
We have not continued with further courses because we started to have unseasonal rain at the end of March which has resulted in lots of green fodder being available for the cows. With fresh grass available it would be difficult for the farmers to introduce a new kind of fermented food for their cows. We will repeat this process inthe next dry season. This course is being supported by Direct Aid Program from the Australian Consulate in Bali.
IV.1 Half a Cow Appeal
The half a cow appeal which was aimed at raising money to buy a cow from two donors got a very good response. We got support from Sarin Bhuwana Eco Lodge (Linda and Norman Van Hoff) and David Lambert for this Project. The cow is nicknamed “Tidak Apa Apa” which means no worries in Balinese, in honour of the Australian donors who contributed to her purchase. ‘TAA’ is being cared for at FNPF office. Integrated with this program we are raising earth worms to produce compost of far higher quality than just cow dung alone. This will be used on seedlings in our Reforestation Nursery. ‘TAA’ is pregnant and we area expecting to get the first calf in 6-7 months. We may develop this program to assist local farmers as a part of our community development projects, if we can get more supporters for this. Let us know if you would be interested!
IV.2 School Visit
On March 23 we hosted a visit from 27 students and 4 teachers from Pelita Harapan School in West Java. They came to the island as a part of their studies, to learn about the conservation work that FNPF is doing, in paritcular reforestation and general conservation issues. At the same time the student also learned about the Begawan Foundation Bali Starling Breeding and Release Program, and local seaweed farming. During this trip each student planted Jamaican Cherry ( Muntingea carabula ) by the road side at FNPF office area.
IV.3 Scientific Research
A biology student from Universitas Indonesia (Indonesian University) is doing a research paper for her Masters in Biology regarding the relationships amongst bird species on Nusa Penida. We hope this research will give us more information about how all bird species in Nusa Penida interact, including the birds that have been released recently. Nusa Penida used to have a much larger bird population that has declined over a long period due to logging and land clearing from the time of Dutch occupation and poaching by outside bird traders.
Despite ongoing limited funding availability, we are managing to maintain our work with good support from the local community and local government. We hope to have additional financial support to ensure the survival of the Bali Bird Sanctuary on Nusa Penida longterm – and in order to continue to improve the quality and breadth of our work across wildlife conservation, reaforestation, agroforestry, environmental education and community developement.